Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers
SOC: 19-2042.00

Description:

Study the composition, structure, and other physical aspects of the Earth. May use geological, physics, and mathematics knowledge in exploration for oil, gas, minerals, or underground water; or in waste disposal, land reclamation, or other environmental problems. May study the Earth's internal composition, atmospheres, oceans, and its magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces. Includes mineralogists, crystallographers, paleontologists, stratigraphers, geodesists, and seismologists.


National Salary Information:

Hourly Statistics:

Annual Statistics:

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2015 wage data.


Employment Projections:

Employment (2014):
36,400 employed

Projected (2024):
40,200 employed

Projected growth (2014-2024)


Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2015 2014-2024 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2014-2024). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.


Alternate Titles:

  • Core Analysis Operator
  • Core Analyst
  • Crystallographer
  • Development Geologist
  • Engineering Geologist
  • Environmental Consultant
  • Environmental Field Office Manager
  • Environmental Geologist
  • Environmental Protection Geologist
  • Exploration Geologist
  • Field Geologist
  • Geochemist
  • Geodesist
  • Geological Scout
  • Geological Specialist
  • Geologist
  • Geomagnetist
  • Geomorphologist
  • Geophysical Laboratory Director
  • Geophysical Laboratory Supervisor
  • Geophysical Prospector
  • Geophysicist
  • Geoscientist
  • Hydrogeologist
  • Invertebrate Paleontologist
  • Marine Geologist
  • Micro Paleontologist
  • Mine Geologist
  • Mineralogist
  • Oceanologist
  • Paleontologist
  • Petrographer
  • Petroleum Geologist
  • Petrologist
  • Petrophysicist
  • Project Geologist
  • Project Geophysicist
  • Prospector
  • Research Geologist
  • Sedimentationist
  • Seismologist
  • Soils Engineer
  • Stratigrapher
  • Volcanologist


  • Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed

    Experience:

    A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.

    Education:

    Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.

    Job Training:

    Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.


    Required Skills:

  • Reading Comprehension
  • Active Listening
  • Writing
  • Speaking
  • Mathematics
  • Science
  • Critical Thinking
  • Active Learning
  • Learning Strategies
  • Monitoring
  • Social Perceptiveness
  • Coordination
  • Persuasion
  • Negotiation
  • Instructing
  • Service Orientation
  • Complex Problem Solving
  • Operations Analysis
  • Technology Design
  • Equipment Selection
  • Programming
  • Operation Monitoring
  • Operation and Control
  • Troubleshooting
  • Quality Control Analysis
  • Judgment and Decision Making
  • Systems Analysis
  • Systems Evaluation
  • Time Management
  • Management of Financial Resources
  • Management of Material Resources
  • Management of Personnel Resources

  • Knowledge Used:

  • Administration and Management
  • Clerical
  • Economics and Accounting
  • Sales and Marketing
  • Customer and Personal Service
  • Personnel and Human Resources
  • Production and Processing
  • Computers and Electronics
  • Engineering and Technology
  • Design
  • Building and Construction
  • Mechanical
  • Mathematics
  • Physics
  • Chemistry
  • Biology
  • Psychology
  • Sociology and Anthropology
  • Geography
  • Education and Training
  • English Language
  • Foreign Language
  • Fine Arts
  • History and Archeology
  • Philosophy and Theology
  • Public Safety and Security
  • Law and Government
  • Telecommunications
  • Communications and Media
  • Transportation


  • Tasks:

  • Analyze and interpret geological, geochemical, or geophysical information from sources such as survey data, well logs, bore holes, or aerial photos.
  • Plan or conduct geological, geochemical, or geophysical field studies or surveys, sample collection, or drilling and testing programs used to collect data for research or application.
  • Investigate the composition, structure, or history of the Earth's crust through the collection, examination, measurement, or classification of soils, minerals, rocks, or fossil remains.
  • Prepare geological maps, cross-sectional diagrams, charts, or reports concerning mineral extraction, land use, or resource management, using results of fieldwork or laboratory research.
  • Locate and estimate probable natural gas, oil, or mineral ore deposits or underground water resources, using aerial photographs, charts, or research or survey results.
  • Assess ground or surface water movement to provide advice regarding issues such as waste management, route and site selection, or the restoration of contaminated sites.
  • Conduct geological or geophysical studies to provide information for use in regional development, site selection, or development of public works projects.
  • Advise construction firms or government agencies on dam or road construction, foundation design, land use, or resource management.
  • Communicate geological findings by writing research papers, participating in conferences, or teaching geological science at universities.
  • Measure characteristics of the Earth, such as gravity or magnetic fields, using equipment such as seismographs, gravimeters, torsion balances, or magnetometers.
  • Test industrial diamonds or abrasives, soil, or rocks to determine their geological characteristics, using optical, x-ray, heat, acid, or precision instruments.
  • Develop applied software for the analysis and interpretation of geological data.
  • Analyze and interpret geological data, using computer software.
  • Design geological mine maps, monitor mine structural integrity, or advise and monitor mining crews.
  • Collaborate with medical or health researchers to address health problems related to geological materials or processes.
  • Determine methods to incorporate geo-methane or methane hydrates into global energy production or evaluate the potential environmental impacts of such incorporation.
  • Determine ways to mitigate the negative consequences of mineral dust dispersion.
  • Develop strategies for more environmentally friendly resource extraction and reclamation.
  • Develop ways to capture or use gases that are currently burned off as waste during oil production processes.
  • Identify new sources for Platinum Group Elements necessary for industrial uses, such as automotive fuel cells or pollution abatement systems.
  • Identify possible sites for carbon sequestration projects.
  • Locate potential sources of geothermal energy.
  • Provide advice on the safe siting of new nuclear reactor projects or methods of nuclear waste management.
  • Research geomechanical or geochemical processes to be used in carbon sequestration projects.
  • Research ways to reduce the ecological footprint of increasingly prevalent megacities.
  • Review environmental cleanup work plans to determine the effectiveness of the remedial activities for mitigating soil or groundwater contamination.
  • Study historical climate change indicators found in locations such as ice sheets or rock formations to develop models related to current climate changes.
  • Locate and review research articles or environmental, historical, or technical reports.
  • Identify risks for natural disasters, such as mudslides, earthquakes, or volcanic eruptions.
  • Inspect construction projects to analyze engineering problems, using test equipment or drilling machinery.
  • Identify deposits of construction materials suitable for use as concrete aggregates, road fill, or in other applications.

  • Tools & Technology:

  • Abney levels
  • Agitators
  • All terrain vehicles ATV
  • Alternating field demagnitizers
  • Altimeters
  • Analog map measurers
  • Argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopes
  • Atomic absorption AA spectrophotometers
  • Automated core analysis systems
  • Axes
  • Biological dredges
  • Borehole cameras
  • Bottom sampling equipment
  • Brunauer-Emmett-Teller BET surface area analyzers
  • Carbon analyzers
  • Cathodoluminescence scopes
  • Centrifuges
  • Chisel hammers
  • Chromatographic scanners
  • Clinometers
  • Colorimeters
  • Computed tomography CT scanners
  • Core splitters
  • Crack hammers
  • Degaussing wands
  • Desktop computers
  • Dessicators
  • Digital alkalinity titrators
  • Digital cameras
  • Digital map measurers
  • Digital seismographs
  • Digitizers
  • Digitizing tablets
  • Dissolved oxygen meters
  • Drying ovens
  • Earth resistivity meters
  • Echosounders
  • Electrical conductivity cells
  • Electrical conductivity meters
  • Electron microprobes
  • Electron microscopes
  • Electronic bench scales
  • Electronic toploading balances
  • Fluid inclusion microscopes
  • Fume hoods
  • Fusion fluxes
  • Gamma ray scintillometers
  • Gamma ray spectrometers
  • Geo/paleo picks
  • Geological compasses
  • Geological stratum compasses
  • Geophones
  • Global positioning system GPS receivers
  • Gravity meters
  • Ground penetrating radar GPR
  • Hand levels
  • Hand magnifying lenses
  • High temperature laboratory ovens
  • Hydraulic earth drills
  • Illuminated microscopes
  • Impulse magnetizers
  • Ion chromatographs
  • Isodynamic separators
  • Jaw crushers
  • Laboratory rock pulverizers
  • Large-format plotters
  • Laser printers
  • Laser rangefinders
  • Laser theodolites
  • Long range radar equipment
  • Magnetic susceptibility measurement systems
  • Magnetic susceptibility/anisotropy systems
  • Magnetic susceptibility/temperature systems
  • Mainframe computers
  • Mapping dividers
  • Mapping scale sets
  • Mass spectrometers
  • Mechanical earth drills
  • Mercury analyzers
  • Microgravimeters
  • Microscope slides
  • Microsplitters
  • Mobile wireless handheld communication devices
  • Motorized mortars/pestles
  • Multibeam echosounders
  • Notebook computers
  • One-atmosphere furnaces
  • Optical compound microscopes
  • Penetrometers
  • Personal computers
  • Petrographic microscopes
  • pH meters
  • Planimeters
  • Plankton nets
  • Pneumatic airscribes
  • Pocket magnetic susceptibility meters
  • Pocket transits
  • Polarizing microscopes
  • Portable organic vapor analyzers
  • Powered rock-coring drills
  • Protractors
  • Pry bars
  • Radiation detectors
  • Rangefinders
  • Reverse osmosis systems
  • Rock chisels
  • Rock magnetometers
  • Rock picks
  • Rock saws
  • Rotary grinders
  • Roto torque mixers
  • Rotoevaporators
  • Sand grain size gauges
  • Scanners
  • Sediment piston corers
  • Sediment samplers
  • Seismic activity recorders
  • Seismic stations
  • Seismographs
  • Short-range radar equipment
  • Side scan sonars
  • Sieve shakers
  • Soft face hammers
  • Soil augers
  • Soil samplers
  • Stereo microscopes
  • Stereoscopes
  • Submicron particle size analyzers
  • Sun compasses
  • Temperature profile recorders
  • Test sieves
  • Thermal specimen demagnitizers
  • Thermistor chains
  • Total stations
  • Towed sonars
  • Tree corers
  • Triple beam balances
  • Tube samplers
  • Tubular water samplers
  • Ultrasonic sieve cleaners
  • Ultraviolet UV lamps
  • Underwater cameras
  • Underwater sediment bearing strength probes
  • Vertical sketchmasters
  • Vibrating sample magnetometers
  • Video microscopes
  • Water current meters
  • Water level recorders
  • Water sampler bottles
  • Winches
  • X ray diffractometers
  • X ray fluorescence spectrometers
  • X ray fluorescence XRF lead detectors
  • ACD Systems Canvas
  • Adobe Systems Adobe Photoshop software
  • Alara CRystalView
  • Aquifer test software
  • Atoll GeoCAD
  • Autodesk AutoCAD software
  • Bilko software
  • BOSS Didger
  • ChemStat software
  • Clover Technology GALENA
  • Compass Software
  • Crystal Maker software
  • Data logger software
  • Datamine software
  • Document Express software
  • EarthSoft EQuIS Geology
  • EarthWorks Downhole Explorer
  • Earthworks MaxiPit
  • EasySolve Software SizePerm
  • Email software
  • Enigma software
  • eNotebook software
  • EPIC GIS
  • ER Mapper software
  • ESRI ArcGIS software
  • ESRI ArcIMS
  • ESRI ArcInfo
  • ESRI ArcView
  • Evolution Computing EasyCAD
  • Evolution Computing FastCAD
  • Field Data Recorder software
  • Gemcom GEMS
  • Gemcom Surpac
  • Geo-Logic Systems LithoTect Interpreter
  • Geographic resources analysis support system GRASS* software
  • GeoGraphix software
  • Geomechanical design analysis GDA software
  • GeoModel software
  • GeoPLUS Petra
  • Geosoft DAP server
  • Geosoft Oasis montaj
  • Geospatial data abstraction library GDAL
  • Geostatistical modeling GSTAT software
  • Geostatistics software GS+
  • gINT software
  • Golden Software Surfer (graphics or photo imaging feature)
  • Golden Software Surfer (map creation feature)
  • Gresens 92
  • Groundwater modeling system GMS software
  • Groundwater Vistas software
  • Hydrogeology Basin2
  • HydroSOLVE AQTESOLV software
  • IGnet software
  • IHS Energy PowerTools
  • Intergraph ImageStation Stereo Softcopy Kit SSK
  • Internet browser software
  • Interpex IXID
  • IRIS Seismic Processing Workshop
  • Laboratory information management system LIMS software
  • Landmark VIP
  • Leica Geosystems ERDAS IMAGINE
  • MapInfo Professional
  • Maptek Vulcan
  • MICRODEM
  • Microsoft Excel
  • Microsoft Office software
  • Microsoft PowerPoint
  • Microsoft Word
  • Midland Valley 3DMove
  • MineGeo software
  • MineSight software
  • Mintec MineSight software
  • MIT OASES
  • MJ Systems Logsleuth
  • Multivariate statistical program MVSP software
  • MySQL software
  • National Geophysical Data Center GEODAS
  • OpenOffice.org
  • Oracle software
  • OriginLab Origin
  • PaleoMag
  • Paleontological Statistics PAST
  • PaleoTax software
  • Paradigm SKUA-GOCAD
  • Parameter Estimation PEST
  • PolyMap software
  • PowerCAD software
  • Red Rock DeltaGraph
  • RockWare ChemFlux
  • Rockware CrossLog
  • RockWare DepthCon2000
  • RockWare Erupt
  • RockWare FIRSTPIX
  • RockWare Geochemist's Workbench GWB
  • RockWare GeoTrig
  • RockWare GRADIX
  • RockWare Grav2Dc
  • RockWare Jlog
  • RockWare MicroMODEL
  • RockWare Plan
  • RockWare Potent
  • RockWare QuickSyn
  • RockWare RockPack III
  • RockWare RockWorks
  • RockWare Stratbugs
  • RockWare VEGO
  • RockWare Visual STUNT
  • RockWare WinSism
  • RSI ENVI
  • RSI interactive data language IDL software
  • SACLANTCEN
  • SAS software
  • Schlumberger Inside Reality
  • Scientific Software Group ChemPoint/ChemStat
  • Scientific Software Group FEFLOW
  • Scientific Software Group Infinite Extent
  • Scientific Software Group SVHeat
  • SEA software
  • SeeByte SeeTrack
  • Seismic interpretation software
  • Seismic Micro-Technology KINGDOM
  • Seismic visualization software
  • Shape software
  • Socorro Scientific Software Refract2K
  • Solvcalv
  • Starpint Software Super Slug
  • Strain Sim software
  • Systat Software SigmaStat
  • TECHBASE software
  • Terrain surface mapping software
  • TiltSoft software
  • Trimble Terramodel
  • Triton Elics International SeaClass
  • Upperspace DesignCAD
  • Upperspace ModelCAD
  • Waterloo Hydrogeologic AquaChem
  • Waterloo Hydrogeologic FlowPath II
  • Well logging software


  • life physical and social science


    industry stats

    SOC: 19-0000

    Total Employed: 1,146,110

    Average Annual Salary: $71,220